Trials of vaccines and treatments have not included enough female participants. Now that scientists are exploring possible cures, the need to enrol women is greater than ever.

Inspired by reports of a second patient apparently freed of infection with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, scientists are pursuing dozens of ways to cure the disease.

But now, researchers must reckon with a long-standing obstacle: the lack of women in clinical trials of potential HIV treatments, cures and vaccines.

Women make up just over half the 35 million people living with HIV worldwide, and the virus is the leading cause of

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