A Mount Maunganui marae in the middle of an industrial area is concerned for the health of its whānau and want its heavy industry neighbours to find a new home.
But a nearby company say its staff do not suffer poor health and local councils believe a managed retreat of heavy industry would be very challenging.
Whareroa Marae is tucked into the inner Tauranga Harbour moana and its community has been voicing concerns about air quality for years.
In 2019, the air over the Mount Maunganui industrial area - which includes the marae - was officially classed as polluted and last year, a working group was set up to address the issue.
This year, alarm bells rang again when PFAS - toxic substances associated with firefighting foam -
near the marae.
The marae has been given the all-clear on PFAS, but environmental spokesman Joel Ngatuere believed the air quality still made his community suffer.
"I've seen kids just sitting down drawing and all of a sudden having asthma attacks, kids getting headaches, our kaumātua getting headaches," he said.
Toi Te Ora Public Health medical officer of health Jim Miller said the air pollution in Mount Maunganui could cause health issues and health authorities were concerned about it.
"There is an ongoing risk to population health while air quality remains poor. Exposure to poor quality air can cause short-term health effects such as coughing and shortness of breath or worsening of underlying conditions such as asthma," he said.
"More prolonged exposure may contribute to respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers."
Fertiliser company Ballance Agri-Nutrients was one of the heavy industry companies in the area and among those with consent to discharge sulphur dioxide into the air.
In 2018, Ballance was fined $82,500 for an accidental - but unauthorised - discharge of sulphur dioxide the year earlier.
Two truck drivers were admitted to hospital, and other people nearby suffered temporary effects, such as difficulty breathing.
Since then, Ballance had spent $8.3 million on a converter to reduce emissions, bringing the amount of sulphur dioxide discharged below consent limits.
Operations manager Charlie Bourne said none of its staff suffered health issues because of air pollution.
"We have roughly 300 people on-site every day and we don't have issues with nausea or headaches."
Bay of Plenty Regional Council had a network of air quality monitors throughout the industrial area, including one at Whareroa Marae.
Regulatory services general manager Sarah Omudsen said the council was in regular contact with the marae.
"We understand that Whareroa are in a difficult situation. They are surrounded by industry and so they are smelling that and seeing that every day."
Air pollution was not the marae's only concern.
Toxic PFAS compounds, used in non-stick cookware, food packaging and firefighting foam, were picked up by chemical company Lawter New Zealand on its site near the marae after a contaminated land assessment as part of a resource consent application.
Lawter alerted the council, who tested the area.
Further testing by the council found no PFAS in soil at the marae, nearby recreation and residential areas, or in further sampling in the hangi pit.
Some of the compound was detected near the marae, but the council said this did not exceed the recreational human health guideline adopted by central government.
But the contaminant source was unknown and the council was investigating the entire Mount Maunganui industrial area.
Ngatuere believed the marae remained at risk as long as the source was unidentified.
"It's like the air, you can't put a ring fence around it. With the soil you can't stop it from leaching over time," he said.
Managed retreat 'very challenging'
The marae called for a managed retreat of heavy industry from the area.
The Tauranga City and Bay of Plenty Regional councils had joined forces and backed an independent report investigating the proposal.
Tauranga City Council regulatory and compliance general manager Baraba Dempsey supported Whareroa Marae's aspirations - but said a managed retreat of industry looked tough.
"To have a total retreat would be extremely challenging and I couldn't envisage what that might look like or how that would happen."
Ballance operations manager Charlie Bourne was sitting on the fence until more information was available.
"I wouldn't want to agree with [a managed retreat] or oppose it until we had more facts in front of us."
Ngatuere hit back at any suggestion the marae itself should move.
"People say 'why don't you just move?' The whānau have been living here since the 1800s. Where's the whānau going to go?"
A Waste Management spokesperson said heavy industry could be relocated if alternative land was made available.
Environment Minister David Parker told RNZ he understood the concerns of the marae community.