Airlines are flocking to New Zealand and existing carriers are piling on new capacity to serve a travel boom in what's being called a new golden age in air travel.
International capacity through Auckland Airport has grown by close to 10 per cent in the past five years as Kiwis travel overseas in record numbers -- up 6 per cent last year to about 2.4 million -- and the number of overseas visitors hits new highs, now above 3 million a year.
And according to figures supplied to the Ministry of Transport, there will be close to a million extra seats in and out of New Zealand this year.
Around the world, air travel increased 6.5 per cent last year, when more than 3.5 billion passengers were carried. As much as half the increase in passengers is estimated to have been driven by falling fares.
Air New Zealand, by far the biggest airline operating here, is forecast to increase its capacity by 10.4 per cent to the middle of the year.
Low oil prices for more than a year have enabled many airlines to hold or drop fares, and carriers that have struggled for years are now back in the black and looking to expand.
According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), airlines collectively will save $18 billion on fuel this year and post an annual $50 billion in net profits for the past year, up from $17.4 billion in 2014.
Airlines with newer fleets are even more expansive. New planes are better matched to new routes or to revitalising routes that had been given up in the past -- including New Zealand.
And it's not just international capacity that is surging.
What's driving the capacity boom?
• Airlines are taking advantage of lower fuel prices to extend their networks.
• New Zealand is a hot destination. Chinese tourists are coming in record numbers and US, Japanese and European tourists are back in force. Australians are travelling closer to home.
• The backlog of widebody plane orders is being translated into deliveries. Airlines now have hundreds of new planes such as the Boeing 787 to fly "long, thin" routes to New Zealand where aircraft with around 300 seats are ideal.
• A relatively buoyant domestic economy means Kiwis are travelling overseas in record numbers.
• New Zealand used to be thought of as an end-of-the-line destination, but there are now signs it could become a hub between Asia and Latin America.
What does the increased capacity mean?
• Airlines need to fill planes so fares come down, especially out of peak periods.
• But as carriers scrap it out on key routes, this can lead to heavy losses in the long term and overseas airlines pulling out.
What could stall the boom?
• The same factors that are partly responsible for the fall in oil prices -- a slowing Chinese economy, choppy economic recovery elsewhere -- could weaken demand for air travel, though it has been largely immune in the past few years.
• Financial market shocks have historically hurt air travel, especially in the premium cabins where airlines make most of their money.
• Steep falls in fuel prices have been most help to airlines with less efficient fleets; when oil prices start heading up again, these airlines will feel the pain first.
• Demand for air travel is susceptible to other shocks including pandemics and terrorism.