Businesses should close break rooms. Restaurants should consider disposable menus and plates. Schools should have students eat lunch in their classrooms.
These are some of the recommendations offered in new United States federal plans designed to help restaurants, schools, churches and businesses safely reopen as states look to gradually lift their coronavirus restrictions.
The draft guidance from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention has been sent to Washington but still could be revised before US President Donald Trump's Administration unveils it to the public. The recommendations were obtained from a federal official.
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The CDC put together so-called "decision trees" for at least seven types of organisations: schools, camps, childcare centers, religious facilities, mass transit systems, workplaces, and bars/restaurants.
White House officials previously released a three-phase reopening plan for the nation that mentioned schools and other organisations that come back online at different points. But it hadn't previously offered more specific how-to guidelines for each kind of entity with specific steps they can take.
The new guidance still amounts to little more than advice. State and local officials will be the ones to adopt and enforce them.
Some state and local governments have already put rules in place for businesses that are operating. For example, Michigan requires businesses to limit how many customers can be in a store at one time. New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said that each business that wants to reopen will have to submit a plan to the state on how to do that.
The new guidance could offer some unified federal guidance that local officials can lean on, said Lindsay Wiley, an American University public health law expert.
"Federal guidance provides cover to the states for those regulations if they're challenged in the courts," she said. "It allows the state to say 'well the CDC said to do it this way,' and the judge then is very happy to say 'well yes you consulted CDC and that's the appropriate body,' and then uphold the restrictions and say they're appropriately evidence based."
Some examples from the guidance:
— In the initial reopening phases, schools should space desks 2m apart, nix any field trips and school assemblies, and have students eat lunch in their classrooms instead of the cafeteria.
— Churches should hold services through video streaming or at drive-in or outdoor venues as much as possible. They should also encourage everyone to wear cloth face masks, use a stationary collection box, and schedule extra services if necessary to make sure church pews are not packed and congregants stay at least 2m from each other.
— Restaurants should consider using throwaway menus, single-service condiments, and disposable forks, knives, spoons, and dishes. They should install sneeze guards at cash registers, limit the number of employees on a shift, and avoid having buffets, salad bars, and drink stations.
The guidance for religious groups notes "as all Americans are now aware, gatherings present a special risk for increasing spread of Covid-19.
The suggestions include providing congregants spiritual and emotional care "on a flexible or virtual basis or refer them to other available resources."
Allen Fagin, executive vice president of the Orthodox Union, said that as much as worship in synagogues is "one of the most fundamental aspects of Jewish life," his faith also believes that "the sanctity of life is more important than any other aspect of observance."
Application of any guidelines are likely to have significant regional and demographic variation, Fagin added. "There's going to have to be a great deal of both training and soul-searching in particular communities to make certain the guidelines are understood and will in fact be adhered to, to the letter."
Various trade groups have also started coming out with recommendations.
For example, the National Restaurant Association last week put out guidance to restaurants considering reopening. The association based its guidance on recommendations from the US Food and Drug Administration. But its suggestions don't necessarily match the draft CDC proposals.
The association said restaurants should clean and sanitise reusable menus, while the CDC suggests using disposable menus.
And the CDC recommends that employees use cloth masks when interacting with customers, but the association doesn't.
But some guidance is similar. The association and the CDC both recommend seating dining parties at least 2m apart.