If the bond between mother and baby is damaged or absent, then the life-long impact can be profound and ongoing, writes Kyle MacDonald.

Traditional psychotherapy has always understood the importance of the early bond between mother and infant, and while the elevation of mothers' importance has often lead to the claim that psychoanalysis considers "everything to be the mother's fault", quite the opposite is true: that early bond is held as sacrosanct, and vital to our ongoing wellbeing and emotional health.

Throughout the second half of the 20th Century modern attachment research refined this understanding, and helped define the sorts