A spacecraft from the United Arab Emirates has swung into orbit around Mars in a triumph for the Arab world's first interplanetary mission.
Mission controllers at the UAE's space centre in Dubai announced Tuesday that the craft reached the end of its nearly seven-month, 480-million-kilometre journey and began circling the red planet. The craft is called Amal, which is Arabic for Hope. And it will gather data on Mars' thin atmosphere.
It took several nail-biting minutes or so for the signal confirming success to reach Earth. Tensions were high: over the years, Mars has been the graveyard for a multitude of missions from various countries.
Two more unmanned spacecraft from the US and China are set to arrive at Mars over the next several days. All three missions were launched in July to take advantage of the close alignment of Earth and Mars.
The combination orbiter and lander from China is scheduled to reach the planet on Wednesday. It will circle Mars until the rover separates and attempts to land on the surface in May to look for signs of ancient life.
A rover from the US named Perseverance is set to join the crowd next week, aiming for a landing on February 18. It will be the first leg in a decade-long US-European project to bring Mars rocks back to Earth to be examined for evidence the planet once harboured microscopic life.
About 60 per cent of all Mars missions have ended in failure, crashing, burning up or otherwise falling short in a testament to the complexity of interplanetary travel and the difficulty of making a descent through Mars' thin atmosphere.
If it pulls this off, China will become only the second country to land successfully on Mars.
The US has done it eight times, the first almost 45 years ago. A Nasa rover and lander are still working on the surface.
For the UAE, it was the country's first venture beyond Earth's orbit, making the flight a matter of intense national pride.
For days, landmarks across the UAE, including Burj Khalifa, the tallest tower on Earth, glowed red to mark Amal's anticipated arrival. This year is the 50th anniversary of the country's founding, casting even more attention on Amal.
The celestial weather station aimed for an exceptionally high Martian orbit of 22,000km by 44,000km. It was set to join six spacecraft already operating around Mars: three US, two European and one Indian.
Amal was expected to perform an intricate, high-stakes series of turns and engine firings to manoeuvre into orbit and achieve what has eluded so many before.
"Anything that slightly goes wrong and you lose the spacecraft," said Sarah al-Amiri, minister of state for advanced technology and the chairwoman of the UAE's space agency.
A success would be a tremendous boost to the UAE's space ambitions. The country's first astronaut rocketed into space in 2019, hitching a ride to the International Space Station with the Russians. That's 58 years after the Soviet Union and the US launched astronauts.
In developing Amal, the UAE collaborated with more experienced partners instead of going it alone or buying the spacecraft elsewhere. Its engineers and scientists worked with researchers at the University of Colorado, the University of California at Berkeley and Arizona State University.
The spacecraft was assembled at Boulder, Colorado, before being sent to Japan for launch last July.
All three spacecraft en route to the red planet lifted off within days of one another, taking advantage of the close alignment of Earth and Mars — thus their close arrival times.
The car-size Amal cost $200 million to build and launch; that excludes operating costs at Mars. The Chinese and US expeditions are considerably more complicated — and expensive — because of their rovers. Nasa's Perseverance mission totals $3 billion.
The UAE, a federation of seven skeikhdoms, is looking for Amal to ignite the imaginations of the country's scientists and its youth, and help prepare for a future when the oil runs out.
"This mission was never about just reaching Mars," said Omran Sharaf, Amal's project manager. "Mars is just a means for a much bigger objective."