In a decision that could affect associates of President Donald Trump accused of wrongdoing and hoping for pardons, the Supreme Court has ruled that criminal defendants may be prosecuted for the same offences in both federal and state court.

Since Trump's pardon power extends only to federal crimes, the ruling leaves people he pardons subject to state prosecutions.

The vote was 7-2, with Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Neil Gorsuch each filing dissents.

Writing for the majority, Justice Samuel Alito said there was no good reason to overrule 170 years of precedents allowing separate prosecutions.

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The Constitution's double jeopardy clause