Hours after Scott Morrison won the Australian Federal election, he appealed for more civility. For Australians to "disagree better" in political debate.

He will be disappointed. It is not going to happen. There will be no attitude change, and for easily identifiable reasons. There are any number of reasons the election result defied the polls. And that defection from prediction needs examination by politicians, media and all and sundry.

Here are some of the causes of the result that no one predicted. Well, almost no one. Essentially, it was the polls. For three years, Labor out-polled the Coalition partners,