Russian President Vladimir Putin, re-elected to a new six-year term, has thanked voters for their support at a victory rally, saying Russia had a great future ahead of it provided its people stayed united.

Putin, speaking from a stage just off Moscow's Red Square in front of a cheering audience, said the election result was a recognition of what had been achieved in the past few years, despite difficult conditions.

Before leaving the stage to applause, he led the crowd in a chant of "Russia, Russia!"

Putin won a landslide re-election victory, extending his rule over the world's largest country for another six years at a time when his ties with the West are on a hostile trajectory.

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Another term will take Putin to nearly a quarter century in power - a longevity among Kremlin leaders second only to Soviet dictator Josef Stalin. Photo / AP
Another term will take Putin to nearly a quarter century in power - a longevity among Kremlin leaders second only to Soviet dictator Josef Stalin. Photo / AP

The vote was tainted by widespread reports of ballot-box stuffing and forced voting, but the complaints will likely do little to undermine Putin. The Russian leader's popularity remains high despite his suppression of dissent and reproach from the West over Russia's increasingly aggressive stance in world affairs and alleged interference in the 2016 US election.

Putin's main challenge in the vote was to obtain a huge margin of victory in order to claim an indisputable mandate.

The Central Elections Commission said Putin had won about 73 per cent of the vote, based on a count of 30 percent of the country's precincts.

Russian authorities had sought to ensure a large turnout to bolster the image that Putin's so-called "managed democracy" is robust and offers Russians true choices. By 5pm Moscow time, authorities said turnout had hit nearly 52 per cent.

Put had faced seven minor candidates on the ballot. His most vehement foe, anti-corruption campaigner Alexei Navalny, was rejected as a presidential candidate because he was convicted of fraud in a case widely regarded as politically motivated. Navalny and his supporters had called for an election boycott but the extent of its success could not immediately be gauged.

The election came amid escalating tensions between Russia and the West, with reports that Moscow was behind the nerve-agent poisoning this month of a former Russian double agent in Britain and that its internet trolls had mounted an extensive campaign to undermine the 2016 US presidential election.

Britain and Russia last week announced tit-for-tat diplomat expulsions over the spy case and the United States issued new sanctions.Russian officials denounced both cases as efforts to interfere in the Russian election.

But the disputes likely worked in Putin's favor, reinforcing the official stance that the West is infected with "Russophobia" and determined to undermine both Putin and traditional Russian values.

The election took place on the fourth anniversary of Russia's 2014 annexation of Crimea from Ukraine, one of the most dramatic manifestations of Putin's drive to reassert Russia's power.

Crimea and Russia's subsequent support of separatists in eastern Ukraine led to an array of US and European sanctions that, along with falling oil prices, damaged the Russian economy and slashed the ruble's value by half.

But Putin's popularity remained strong, apparently buttressed by nationalist pride.In his next six years in office, Putin is likely to assert Russia's power abroad even more strongly. Just weeks before the election, he announced that Russia has developed advanced nuclear weapons capable of evading missile defenses.

The Russian military campaign that bolsters the Syrian government is clearly aimed at strengthening Russia's foothold in the Middle East and Russia eagerly eyes possible reconciliation on the Korean Peninsula as a lucrative economic opportunity.

At home, Putin will be faced with how to groom a successor or devise a strategy to circumvent term limits, how to drive diversification in an economy still highly dependent on oil and gas and how to improve medical care and social services in Russian regions far removed from the cosmopolitan glitter of Moscow.

Casting his ballot in Moscow, Putin was confident of victory, saying he would consider any percentage of votes a success.

"The programme that I propose for the country is the right one," he declared.

Given the lack of real competition in the presidential race, authorities struggled against voter apathy, in the process putting many of Russia's nearly 111 million voters under intense pressure to cast ballots.

Yevgeny, a 43-year-old mechanic voting in central Moscow, said he briefly wondered whether it was worth voting.

"But the answer was easy ... if I want to keep working, I vote," he said.

He spoke on condition that his last name not be used out of concern that his employer — the Moscow city government — would find out.

Across the country in the city of Yekaterinburg, a Russian doctor also said she was being coerced to vote.

When she hadn't voted by midday, "The chief of my unit called me and said I was the only one who hadn't voted," said the doctor, Yekaterina, who spoke on condition her last name not be used because she also feared repercussions.

Yevgeny Roizman, the mayor of Yekaterinburg, said on his video blog that local officials and state employees all received orders "from higher up" to make sure the presidential vote turnout was over 60 per cent.

In Moscow, first-time voters were being given free tickets for pop concerts and health authorities were offering free cancer screenings at some polling stations.

Voters appeared to be turning in out in larger numbers Sunday than in Russia's last presidential election in 2012, when Putin faced a serious opposition movement and violations like multiple voting, ballot stuffing and coercion marred the voting.

Some 145,000 observers were monitoring the presidential vote Sunday, including 1500 foreigners, and they and ordinary Russians reported hundreds of problems.

Some examples: ballot boxes being stuffed with extra ballots in multiple regions; an election official assaulting an observer; CCTV cameras obscured by flags or nets from watching ballot boxes; discrepancies in ballot numbers; last-minute voter registration changes likely designed to boost turnout and a huge pro-Putin board inside one polling station.

Russian election officials moved quickly Sunday to respond to some of the violations.

They suspended the chief of a polling station near Moscow where a ballot stuffing incident was reported and sealed the ballot box.

A man accused of tossing multiple ballots into a box in the far eastern town of Artyom was arrested.Navalny, whose group was also monitoring the vote, dismissed Putin's challengers on the ballot as "puppets."

He urged Russian voters to boycott the election and vowed to continue defying the Kremlin with street protests.

The Ukrainian government, insulted by Russia's holding the election on the anniversary of Crimea's annexation, refused to let ordinary Russians vote. Ukraine security forces blocked the Russian Embassy in Kiev and consulates elsewhere Sunday as the government protested the voting in Crimea, whose annexation is still not internationally recognized.

Ukrainian leaders are also angry over Russian support for separatists in eastern Ukraine, where fighting has killed at least 10,000 people since 2014.

Polls show that most Russians view the takeover of the Black Sea peninsula as a major achievement despite subsequent Western sanctions.

"Who am I voting for? Who else?" asked Putin supporter Andrei Borisov, 70, a retired engineer in Moscow.

"The others, it's a circus."

Early in the voting, Russia's Central Election Commission claimed it had been the target of a hacking attempt Sunday coming from 15 unidentified nations that was deterred by authorities.

Accusations of voter fraud

Social networks buzzed all day Sunday with videos, photos and firsthand accounts of voting violations in Russia's presidential election.

Election authorities said they will investigate all irregularities and annul results where needed. But the breadth of the reports was striking, and they may cast a shadow on the victory by incumbent Vladimir Putin.

Video authenticated by The Associated Press showed some of the apparent irregularities.

Some also were reported by observers including representatives of opposition leader Alexei Navalny, the Golos monitoring group and ordinary Russians.

Some examples:

Ballot-box stuffing

CCTV footage of a voting station in the Moscow suburb of Lyubertsy shows a woman taking a ballot from a table, looking around to see if anyone is watching, then putting it in the box. She repeats the action, again and again. Another woman, apparently a colleague at the station, joins her.

A video from Ilskhan-Yurt in Chechnya shows a man in a white cap repeatedly putting ballots in the same box.

In the Primorsky region of the Far East, a woman pulls papers from her jacket and stuffs them in the box.

Dozens of other examples of apparent ballot box stuffing were posted online.

The regional election commission said the results from the Lyubertsy station would be invalidated. Authorities sealed a ballot box in the southern city of Rostov-on-Don where ballot stuffing was reported, and are investigating similar allegations in Artyom in the far east.

Assaulting observers

Video from a polling station in Makhachkala in the Caucasus Mountains republic of Dagestan showed local official Magomet Rasulov appearing to punch observer Malik Butaev before being led out by police.

Aida Mirmaksumova, who is collecting violations in Makhachkala, said burly men dressed in black dragged an observer for Communist Party candidate Pavel Grudinin on the ground as he shouted, "Help!" Others yelled: "Get out of here!" Amid the melee, people were seen stuffing what appeared to be ballots into a ballot box.

Zukhrab Omarov, an observer for liberal candidate Grigory Yavlinsky, said he was dragged away by police as he was trying to shoot video of violations in Makhachkala.

"They asked me to show my passport with my registrations, they were asking what I were doing and why, and they said that they would break my nose. They asked me why we were filming and they destroyed all the videos of the violations that we had taken, but some of them are already online," Omarov said, displaying bruises and ripped pants from the incident.

Forced voting

Residents in Perm, Yekaterinburg and Moscow showed the AP messages from employers pressuring workers to vote and requiring them to report on when and where they cast ballots. One worker said he feared he wouldn't get his monthly bonus if he didn't.

In Kudrovo in the Leningradsky region outside St. Petersburg, observer Sergei Dzhus discovered people apparently bused in to a traditionally low-turnout area to boost participation.

"From the very beginning, there were many, many people who came to our polling station," he told the AP. He followed one group getting on a bus, but as he filmed, he said members of the group tried to shield their identities from the camera and refused to answer his questions.

Central Election Commission deputy chief Nikolai Bulayev defended the practice of busing voters to voting stations as "help" for those in remote areas poorly served by public transport.

Gimmicks

There also were turnout-boosting gimmicks and state-funded campaigns, which were not technically illegal but tacitly helped the incumbent.In Moscow, health officials offered cancer screening and discounted food products at polling stations. Some towns staged dancing, sports competitions and clown acts.

Prizes were offered at some polls for voters who wore the best costumes, and some people came dressed as bears, folk characters and medieval knights.

In the Leningradsky region, one man was photographed dressed as a Sarmat ballistic missile — perhaps hoping to capture the attention of the Kremlin as it expands its nuclear arsenal.

- AP