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Thousands of children who can't see or hear properly are falling through the cracks because newborn and preschool checks only look for more serious issues.

As a result, children are going through primary school struggling to learn and thinking they are dumb - rather than knowing there's a reason they can't read.

A recent University of Auckland survey revealed one in 10 kids aged 8 and 9 need glasses but don't have them.

Our findings show:

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• The Ministry of Health under-recording the number of 4-year-olds screened through the B4 School Checks for vision and hearing.

• A number of

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Ethan's story:

Tips for parents

Impact on learning:

Tips for parents

Key barriers:

What needs to change?