A new study claims vaping could make women infertile by preventing embryos from being accepted in the womb.
E-cigarettes are also said to harm the health of daughters of women who do get pregnant despite vaping, by damaging their metabolism and putting them at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
"We found e-cigarette usage prior to conception significantly delayed implantation of a fertilised embryo to the uterus – thus delaying and reducing fertility," Professor Kathleen Caron, of the University of North Carolina, said.
"We also discovered e-cigarette usage throughout pregnancy changed the long-term health and metabolism of female offspring – imparting lifelong, second-generation effects on the growing foetus."
AdvertisementAdvertise with NZME.
The experiments were conducted on mice but the findings may apply to humans, according to the experts.
According to the professor, the data shows that vaping could directly harm a woman's chances of getting pregnant.
This is not the first study to link smoking to infertility.
Earlier this year a Cambridge University study of rats showed mothers who smoke during pregnancy could be harming their daughters' fertility.
"Advocacy of e-cigarette usage as a safe alternative during pregnancy or in young reproductive-aged women should be interpreted with caution," Professor Caron said.