Tokyo has been named as the world's most reputable city in a survey that ranks places on safety, beauty and leadership.
The Japanese capital beat Sydney into second place and Copenhagen into third.
No New Zealand cities appeared on the list
The study also ranked London in 17th place with researchers saying it had fallen 11 places this year due to ongoing Brexit negotiations. The highest ranked US city is San Francisco in 20th place.
The ranking was carried out by the Reputation Institute for its 2018 City RepTrak, which assessed cities based on the reputations of their beauty, leaders, government and how safe they are.
A total of 56 large cities from around the world were included in the 2018 study, which saw six new cities enter the top 10.
Following Tokyo, Sydney and Copenhagen, Vienna and then Stockholm round off the top five.
In sixth place is Venice, while Rome is in seventh and the Swiss city of Zurich is in eighth.
The top ten also features Munich and then Canadian city Montreal in 10th.
When it came to UK cities Edinburgh also slipped down the rankings, as with London, due to perceptions regarding Brexit leadership.
It fell six places to 21st, however Manchester rose four places to 35th place, thanks to the poor performance of other major cities around it in the list.
In the US, after San Francisco, the next highest ranked is New York in 24th place.
Also included in the list are Seattle (29th), Boston (32nd), Miami (34th), Orlando (36th), Los Angeles (38th) and Washington D.C. (40th).
Meanwhile Moscow is this year's least reputable city, even though it maintains a strong reputation among the Russian population.
Mexico City is perceived as the least safe city, following its most violent first quarter in the past two decades.
Enrique Johnson, managing director at Reputation Institute, said: "The competition for city reputation as the foundation for attracting businesses, a talented workforce, and tourists, is only becoming more intense.
"Fostering and developing an effective government is a key priority for cities to attain a strong reputation. Cities must also promote safety, beauty, and leadership, which are key attributes driving city reputation and stakeholder support.
"Those with the highest reputation attract the most visitors and gain the greatest support from their stakeholders, including intentions to live, work, invest, and organise and attend events there."