Despite the social liberalisation of the 1960s and 1970s, legal abortion was hard for New Zealand women to access as the Crimes Act 1961 made it lawful only 'for the preservation of the life of the mother' – a judgement made by doctors. A few women were granted legal terminations in New Zealand hospitals, and others had the funds to go to Australia, but many took their chances with 'backstreet' abortionists. In May 1974 the first abortion clinic had opened in Epsom, Auckland; in September 1974 Labour MP Dr Gerard Wall's Hospitals Amendment Bill was passed, restricting abortions to public