Since last Autumn, sexism in Hollywood has become the movie industry's bête noire – as well as the issue on every discerning star's lips on the red carpet. But, as historic allegations against Harvey Weinstein and others show, Hollywood hasn't been a particularly fun place for women for decades.
What many perhaps didn't realise is that sexism has been existing in plain sight and at some of Hollywood's most prestigious events. Here are the 10 most sexist moments in Oscars history – and how the world barely blinked at them.
Here is our review of the nine most sexist moments in Oscars history – and how the world barely blinked at them:
1. When Adrien Brody forced himself on Halle Berry
A year after Halle Berry became the first – and she remains the only – black woman to win Best Actress, she was thrust into the spotlight again thanks to the zeal of 2003 Best Actor winner and star of The Pianist Adrien Brody. Rather than opt for the traditional peck on the cheek, Brody forced himself on Berry, kissing her - to the round amusement of Jack Nicholson and Nicholas Cage in the crowd – before pushing her aside and uttering the quip: "I bet they didn't tell you that was in the gift bag", as Halle wiped the saliva off her face from the side of the stage.
Brody's stunt made the headlines, and most reportage at the time construed the act – which was not rehearsed, and to which Berry had not consented – as amusing, romantic, or winsome. One even called it "swooningly smooth". Three years later, and the press's concern was still largely with how Berry enjoyed it - when Access Hollywood asked her if Brody was a "good kisser", she said: "Since we didn't really kiss, I can't tell you how good he was, but I can tell you this. He was wet".
Brody, however, seemed to find no harm in his actions. When, in 2015, he was asked by Vanity Fair about the incident, he sincerely explained: "That, sure, was probably one of the most memorable moments, ever. You could say time slowed down, that moment, I really felt it slow down. In fact, it must have, because by the time I finished kissing her people kind of settled in they were already flashing the sign to say get off the stage, Time's Up. It was amazing to have the presence of mind to convey the things that I wanted to share because it is an enormous amount of pressure, somehow."
Berry was grilled about the kiss for years after, but last summer she shared her indignation over it again, to which chatshow host Andy Cohen could only say: "That is awesome, that is amazing, I love that."
2. When Marketa Irglova was played off by the orchestra
Even if Once's Irish-Czech songwriting duo had been favourites to win Best Original Song, the odds were against Glen Hansard and Marketa Irglova. Alan Menkin and Stephen Schwartz dominated the nominations with three songs from Disney's Enchanted clogging up the nominations.
But a clearly flabbergasted Hansard respectfully kept his speech brief in order to let Irglova share her gratitude. Unfortunately, the orchestra had other ideas, and struck up as she took to the mic and started to speak, leaving Irglova nodding in resignation and leaving the stage. Praise be to 2007's host, John Stewart, who invited her back on stage later in the ceremony to make a speech. The last time more than one person had one the Best Original Song gong, in 2005, Jordan Houston, Cedric Coleman and Paul Beauregard were all able to share the mic.
3. When Conrad L Hall creeped out the crowd
American Beauty's five Oscar wins have felt increasingly awkward since its star, Kevin Spacey, was accused of sexual misconduct last Autumn – which caused his speech, in particular, to take on a new resonance. But the late Conrad L Hall's hasn't aged so well either.
The cinematographer, who was 74 when he won the Academy Award, recalled a discussion he had with director Sam Mendes: "From a script that I didn't know how we were going to get a movie that anybody liked because they were such unusual characters, until Sam pointed out to me, 'Don't you ever have any unusual thoughts yourself, Conrad, about 16-year-old girls that accompany your daughter home?' And I thought, 'Oh well…'" His comments won resounding laughter from the audience, while Mendes – minutes away from winning his own Best Director Oscar – hid behind his hand.
4. When they struggled to fill the 1976 Best Actress category
Less of a problem caused by the Oscars than Hollywood in general, but the paucity of major female roles was so bad in 1975 that Louise Fletcher won for her portrayal of Nurse Ratched in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest the next year – despite it technically being a supporting part.
The matter was reported in The New York Times, which decried the lack of meaty women's roles in cinema during what the UN had named International Women's Year.
Somewhat ironically, however, they had male playwright Neil Simon confirm "the lack of good roles for women" on behalf of his wife, 1973 Best Actress nominee Marsha Mason: "It's gotten so she's even willing to do a small part – if the part is right", he told the paper.
5. When Seth MacFarlane sang the boobs song
The Oscars' viewing figures were nosediving after Billy Crystal returned to host the awards in 2012, and the organisers' previous attempts to give the ceremony a youthful edge wound up in a borderline-comatose James Franco. In this context, then, Seth MacFarlane looked promising. The man had created Family Guy, one of the biggest animated comedies of the Noughties, and runaway blockbuster Ted. He could also sing – and upheld Frank Sinatra as his hero.
The problem was, that MacFarlane and his team of writers seemed to lose all sense of adult humour. In fact, his jokes were by turns crass, racist and sexist – occasionally, all three simultaneously – and barely funny.
Zero Dark Thirty, a film about the hunt for Osama Bin Laden co-written and co-directed by a woman, was declared an example of "a woman's innate ability to never ever let anything go". Speaking of nine-year-old Quvenzhane Wallis, MacFarlane quipped: "it'll be 16 years before she's too young for Clooney."
All of this, however, came in the wake of MacFarlane's opening number, We Saw Your Boobs, which, as the title would suggest, was a run-down of actresses from Meryl Streep to Charlize Theron, and the films in which they had appeared topless. In some cases, such as Scarlett Johansson, a film wasn't even necessary, as MacFarlane made light of her being a victim of the nude photo leak – an experience Johansson described as "devastating" and "degrading".
Theron and Jennifer Lawrence were even brought in to film reaction shots to emphasise the song's provocation. The media and prominent members of the film industry widely regarded the opening number as unfunny and inappropriate. It was hardly surprising when MacFarlane's next film – A Million Ways to Die in the West – was roundly panned upon its release a year later.
6. When Jack Nicholson interrupted Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence was the star of the 2013 Oscars – after being singled out as the only woman in MacFarlane's song not to appear topless, she stumbled up the steps en route to accept her Best Actress award for Silver Linings Playbook. Backstage, the 22-year-old Lawrence gave a delighted interview to ABC's George Stephanopoulos.
She was surprised to be interrupted by Jack Nicholson, who tempered his congratulations and comments on her performance with the observation that she "looks like an old girlfriend" of his, before adding that he'd "thought about" making her a "new girlfriend".
The 75-year-old followed up his efforts by sending Lawrence flowers, a bottle of Cristal and a note that said, "Missing you already". Lawrence said the pair hadn't spoken afterwards.
7. When Gary Busey lunged at Jennifer Garner
In 2008, Jennifer Garner was also mid-interview on the red carpet when Gary Busey thought it an appropriate time for an introduction.
E! Red carpet host Ryan Seacrest tried to accommodate Busey, saying, "Have you met Jennifer?", after which Busey embraced the Juno actress and kissed her neck. Seacrest was enthused, saying, "That's great!", before continuing the interview with a shocked Garner, asking her how she manages to be "supermom". To which Garner responded: "Are you going to ask me about being kissed on the neck on the red carpet? By this man?" When Seacrest offered that Garner "looked very nervous", she said: "Yeah, I am", to which Seacrest asked: "Where's Ben [Affleck, Garner's then-husband] right now?"
Busey later apologised, via a statement from his lawyer: "I meant no disrespect to Ms Jennifer Garner when I met her at the Oscars and apologise if I made her uncomfortable."
8. When Martha Raye picked up her Jean Hershaw Award
As Bob Hope folded into his monologue as presenter of the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award during the 1968 Oscars, Martha Raye was a performer who boosted troops morale in "hillsides, foxholes, perimetre bases, PT posts, the highlands and the delta swamps… field hospitals and 500-bed houses of horror" during the Vietnam War.
It was unfortunate, then, that when the 52-year-old came out to pick up her award, he publicly condescended her: "Martha, I know you probably don't realise that you're the first woman to receive the Jean Hersholt Humanitatrian Award", Hope began.
When Raye announced that yes, she did realise it, and explained that she was nervous, Hope's tone turned sharp: "I know, but you're on". Hope's smile faded as Raye apologised into the mic.
9. When Roberto Benigni said he'd rather have Sophia Loren than an Oscar
The Italian director's seat-jumping victory parade has become the stuff of Oscar legend, but nestled in the Life is Beautiful creator's speech was a proclamation that would pave the way for Brody's assault on Berry four years later. Sophia Loren was presenting the Academy Award for Best Foreign Film, and was clearly cheered to award it to a fellow Italian. The pair embraced fondly, only for Beningi to objectify Loren in the opening line of his speech: "Sophia, I leave with the Oscar, but I want you. I want to be rocked by the waves of your beauty," he said, demanding, "Come here!" as Loren laughed nervously on the side of the stage.
10. E!'s manicam
It's long been documented that while Hollywood's men get questioned about their work on the red carpet, women get asked about their dresses. In 2015, the #AskHerMore campaign aimed to increase the diversity of questions women are asked on the carpet after Cate Blanchett challenged the age-old camera shot of panning slowly over a woman's body when she crouched down and asked, "Do you do this to the guys?" That wasn't even the worst of the "cams" scrutinising female filmmakers, however – E! has subjected awards shows attendees to Glam350 Cam, Clutch Cam and Stiletto Cam.
E!'s "manicam", however, possibly proved the nadir of red carpet sexism. A tiny red carpet was recreated for actresses – and only actresses – to "walk" their fingers down in order to show off their manicure and jewellry.
After being installed for the 2012 Golden Globe Awards, the manicam sparked revolt by 2015, with actresses such as Jennifer Aniston, Elisabeth Moss and Julianne Moore all refusing to take the tiny catwalk. E! quietly dropped the gimmick shortly after.