Two decades ago, nearly 10 million children did not live to see a fifth birthday.

By 2017, that number — about 1 in every 16 children — was nearly cut in half, even as the world's population increased by more than 1 billion people.

The sharp decline in childhood mortality reflects work by governments and international aid groups to fight child poverty and the diseases that are most lethal to poor children: neonatal disorders, pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria. But a research report shows the results are also highly unbalanced. In some places, children's health has improved drastically. In others, many

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India

Nigeria

Thailand

Southern Africa

Haiti

Challenges ahead