On November 19, 2010 just after 3.44pm, an explosion tore through the Pike River Mine, 46km northeast of Greymouth on the South Island's West Coast. Over the next 10 days, three more explosions took place. Twenty-nine men were killed and their bodies have never been recovered. They were fathers, sons, husbands, rugby league players, and "hard cases". These are the faces of the Pike River 29.
Conrad John Adams, 43, was born in New Zealand and lived in Greymouth.
His brother, Clayton Adams, said Conrad had two children who he "loved more than anything in the world". Conrad, who had worked in gold and coal mines for 25 years and was a shift boss at Pike River, was a keen sportsman who enjoyed diving and ran ultra-marathons.
Malcolm Campbell, 25, was due to marry his Kiwi fiancee Amanda Shields on December 18.
The Scotsman, originally from St Andrews in Fife, had found work after travelling abroad with a cousin, his father told the Sunday Express. They had spent two years working in Australian gold mines before coming to the Pike River coal mine on the West Coast, he said.
John Leonard Hale, 45, from Ruatapu, was a contractor for Hokitika-based firm Chris Yeats Builders.
Glen Peter Cruse, 35, from Cobden, a suburb in the north of Greymouth, was a career miner from a family with a long history in the industry.
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Allan John Dixon, 59, of Runanga, was one of the oldest miners caught up in the disaster. He had two sons and a partner, Robyn.
Zen Wodin Drew, 21, Greymouth, was a building apprentice for a company contracted to Pike River Coal.
The former Buller High School student had just celebrated his 21st birthday. His father, Laurie Drew, wore his son's jacket while being tearfully interviewed two days after the explosion. "He's just what you want out of a son."
Christopher Peter Duggan, 31, of Greymouth, was described by a friend as a "neat person" and "very bright and bubbly".
Robyn McMillian said Chris was a "hard case and always laughing". She said Chris had not been working in mining for very long and had previously worked in forestry, shifting industries because he wanted a change.
Joseph Ray Dunbar, 17, Greymouth, the youngest of the miners, celebrated his 17th birthday the day before heading down the mine.
His mother, Pip, said Joseph was so excited about his new job that he convinced his boss to let him start on Friday - instead of the following week. "His mates wanted him to go out that night, but he said, 'I'm staying in. I have work in the morning'. He was so chuffed."
Daniel Thomas Herk, 36, of Runanga, has family in Rotorua.
Rotorua woman Brenda Taylor told the Daily Post that every time she thought of her nephew she cried. She first heard of the incident on the television news. She rang Herk's home and spoke to his partner, who told her she wasn't sure where Daniel was. "When I rang back at 9pm she knew he was [in the mine]."
David Mark Hoggart, a 33-year-old living in Foxton who was close friends with fellow miner Duggan.
Richard Bennett Holling, 41 was from Blackball and had been working in the mine for three months as a trainee. He had been married to his wife, Daejaee, for just over a year.
Andrew David Hurren, 32, was originally from Hokitika. Known as "Huck", one friend told TVNZ that "no one could say a bad word about him".
Jacobus (Koos) Albertus Jonker, 47, originally from South Africa, lived in Cobden with his wife Christelle.
William "Willy" John Joynson, 49, was an experienced underground coal miner from Australia who had worked for many years in the Burgowan mines at Howard in Queensland.
Joynson's relatives travelled to New Zealand in the week after the blast to support his wife, Kim, and the couple's two sons, aged 10 and 13. His sister, Veronica Cook, said her brother and his family moved to New Zealand in 2009 but were planning on returning to Australia in 2011. "He is a very good father to his kids. He's an excellent person, a hard worker," Cook said.
Riki Steve Keane, 28, was from Greymouth and played first five-eighths for the Blaketown senior rugby team.
Terry David Kitchin, 41, was a married father-of-three from Runanga. He reportedly finished his shift before the explosion but opted to do two hours of overtime. It is believed Kitchin worked in Australia's Northern Territory for some years, including in the town of Humpty Doo.
Samuel Peter Mackie, 26, was from Greymouth.
His partner, Melissa Byrne, posted on a Herald message board at the time: "My main man SAM. Words cannot express how much I miss you. I miss that cheeky smile, your gorgeous eyes and your amazing hugs. You have given me the greatest gift anyone could ever give and that is your beautiful child. Your baby is going to grow up knowing how amazing their dad is and you will never be forgotten. I love you and always will. Love with all my heart Mel xoxoxo"
Francis Skiddy Marden, 41, was from Runanga and attended Rathkeale College in Masterton from 1983 to 1987.
His wife, Lauryn, left the following comment on the Herald message board at the time: "Good-bye my darling husband, beautiful man, amazing Father and best friend. Thanks to those that cared and have left messages for me. He died young, went out with his name in lights at a U2 Concert, for those that know my husband, that should give you a smile. Cheers Babe, love you for-ever, your wife Lauryn."
Michael Nolan Hanmer Monk, 23, Greymouth, was a fourth-generation West Coaster, the son of Paroa Hotel owner Bernie Monk - a long-serving West Coast rugby captain - and West Coast netballer Kath Monk.
Michael attended St Bede's College in Christchurch as a boarder before spending a year as a house tutor at Ireland's Rockwell College in 2005. He had been working at the Pike River Mine as a contractor for six months, his parents said in a statement. The 23-year-old had taken on his parent's sporting passion and played representative rugby as a hooker, flanker, and lock in the Heartland Championship.
Stuart Gilbert Mudge, 31, a father-of-one from Runanga who was originally from Whangarei. His family said he was well aware of the risks in his job. "Before he took the job there, we had discussions about the risk," his mother Carol Rose said.
Kane Barry Nieper, 33, was from Greymouth. He was married to the daughter of a local contractor and had a young family.
Peter O'Neill, 55, of Runanga, came from a family of miners, with his father and several brothers also working in the industry.
Peter was a passionate and talented league player, a Junior Kiwi, and inaugural coach of the Westport Stags Rugby League team in 1990. He was also involved in the rescue of miners trapped in floods at Black Reef Mine in 2006.
Milton John Osborne, 54, of Ngahere, was a contractor at Pike River and a Grey District Councillor.
His wife Anna has been a vocal campaigner in getting authorities to try to recover the 29 missing bodies from the mine. "They put a 30m concrete lid on our loved ones' coffins without it being explored. You simply cannot kill 29 men and walk away from it. That's appalling."
Brendan John Palmer, a 27-year-old father-of-one from Cobden had been working at Pike River for a few months as a trainee miner following in his father Marty's footsteps.
Benjamin David Rockhouse, 21, of Greymouth, was the brother of Daniel Rockhouse - who was one of the two men who walked out of the mine after the explosion on November 19. Christchurch-born Ben had worked for Pike River Coal since June 2008. His father Neville was the safety and training manager at the company.
Peter James Rodger, 40, moved to New Zealand two years before the disaster to be closer to his mother and sister, and lived with his Kiwi girlfriend, Dianne Morris. Originally from Perth in Scotland, the former oil rig worker made the switch to mining after sustaining a leg injury in the North Sea.
Blair David Sims, 28, a married father-of-two from Greymouth, was also a talented rugby league player and West Coast player of the year for the past two seasons.
Suburbs and West Coast coach Phil Campbell said Sims could have possibly played at a higher level if the opportunity had come earlier in his career, but he chose to stay on the West Coast and build a family and a career in mining.
Joshua Adam Ufer, a 25-year-old Australian, was a drilling supervisor from Queensland. His fiancee, Rachelle Weaver, was 17 weeks pregnant when he was killed. Erika was born in May 2011.
Keith Thomas Valli, at 62, was the oldest of the 29 miners killed. The successful lawn bowler and brother of former All Black Geoff Valli commuted to the Pike River Mine each week from his home in Wairio, near Winton in central Southland.