Pacific Islands nations have failed to garner unanimous support to phase out the use of coal, with Australia appearing to be the hold out.
The final declaration from the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), held in Tuvalu this week, included a reference to a climate "crisis" for the first time, and a consensus that urgent action was needed around climate change.
The leaders of smaller Pacific nations were also hoping for support from New Zealand and Australia for a ban on coal, but a qualifier in the final agreement allowed forum members to disagree with some aspects of the final agreement.
It remains unclear which nations had issues with which aspects of the declaration but, following the final meeting, PIF chairman and Tuvalu Prime Minister Enele Sopoaga had a blunt message for Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison.
"You are concerned about saving your economy ... I'm concerned about saving my people in Tuvalu."
The previous night, Sopoaga said he wished the leaders could have gone further with the final agreement.
The communique and PIF declaration was agreed to last night following a marathon 12-hour meeting, but much remains unclear about the content of the leaders' talks.
The controversy centred on whether the 18-bloc forum would support a declaration from a contingent - which did not include New Zealand or Australia - of nine Pacific Island leaders.
On Monday, the forum agreed on the "declaration on climate change survival".
The declaration included a call declaring a "climate crisis", and an "immediate global ban on the construction of new coal-fired power plants and coal mines".
The smaller nations also called on the forum as a whole to phase out the use of coal.
While the declaration was agreed to by the 18 forum members, a qualifier allowed member states to disagree with aspects of the declaration.
Which country or countries - including New Zealand - had disagreed is unclear, and leaders remained tight-lipped.
But after the forum wrapped up, Sopoaga suggested that Australia was the hold out.
Morrison would not confirm or deny that, telling media last night that the smaller islands' agreement was up to those nations.
"It was not incumbent on any member state to endorse that statement."
Other Pacific Island leaders, such as Fijian Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama, have specifically called on Australia to ditch coal as an energy resource.
Speaking to media this morning, Sopoaga, with Morrison alongside him, said the smaller nations had "very frank" conversations with Australia yesterday.
"We stressed very strongly during our exchange between me and [Morrison] - you are concerned about saving your economy ... I'm concerned about saving my people in Tuvalu."
He said that was the tone of the discussion.
"Don't expect that we come and bow-down," he said.
He added that there were preferences and expectations from all countries.
"But I think the outcome is a very good outcome – it's probably the best outcome, given the context and circumstances."