The leader of Islamic State, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, rose from obscurity to lead the world's most infamous and feared jihadist group, but shuns the spotlight and cultivates an aura of mystery.
A recording purportedly of the Islamic State leader's voice was released today, the first such message in 2016.
It came as thousands of Iraqi forces started to mass around the city of Mosul, where Baghdadi publicly announced the creation of his "caliphate", the most ambitious and brutal experiment in modern jihad.
The recording released by the IS-affiliated Al-Furqan media group was a rare sign of life from Baghdadi, who is known as Caliph Ibrahim by his followers and has a $10 million US bounty on his head.
In the audio, he expressed confidence in victory as Iraqi forces entered the city of Mosul where he declared a "Caliphate" two years ago.
"This ... total war and the great jihad that the Islamic State is fighting today only increases our firm belief, God willing, and our conviction that all this is a prelude to victory," said a voice purporting to be that of Baghdadi.
"Do not retreat ... Holding your ground with honour is a thousand times easier than retreating in shame," he said.
"To all the people of Nineveh, especially the fighters, beware of any weakness in facing your enemy," Baghdadi said, referring to the northern Iraqi province of which Mosul is the capital.
The audio was released early on Thursday by the IS-affiliated Al-Furqan media.
ISIS leader's audio message
Iraqi Army find and extract an ISIS tunnel boring machine just outside Mosul pic.twitter.com/Ykg9aEXtUv— aris roussinos (@arisroussinos) November 2, 2016
#IslamicState Releases A New Audio Message Of Its Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi "This Is What Allah & His Messenger Had Promised Us".— Terrormonitor.org (@Terror_Monitor) November 3, 2016
Air strikes by the US-led coalition supporting the anti-IS war in Iraq and Syria have depleted the leadership of the jihadist organisation in recent months.
Rumours have abounded about Baghdadi's own health and movements but his whereabouts remain unclear.
Shortly after jihadist fighters swept across swathes of Iraq in June 2014, Baghdadi appeared at the Great mosque of Al-Nuri to proclaim a "state" straddling Syria and Iraq in front of thousands of Muslim faithful.
The video of the appearance in Mosul - which showed a man with a black and grey beard wearing a black robe and matching turban - is the only one IS has released of Baghdadi to date.
Baghdadi keeps it 'low key'
"It is rather remarkable that the leader of the most image-conscious terrorist group is so low-key in terms of his own publicity," said Patrick Skinner, an analyst with the Soufan Group intelligence consultancy.
Baghdadi has been reported wounded in air strikes multiple times, but the claims have never been verified, and his apparent survival has added to his mystique.
"He has an element of mystery about him and seems to have achieved a lot more in real terms" than "old guard" jihadists such as Al-Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahiri, said Aymenn al-Tamimi, a fellow at the Middle East Forum.
Baghdadi revived the fortunes of Iraq's struggling Al-Qaeda affiliate, the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), turning it into the independent IS group.
Baghdadi - the 'family man'
According to an official Iraqi government document, Baghdadi was born in Samarra in 1971 and has four children with his first wife - two boys and two girls born between 2000 and 2008.
Another ex-wife, Saja al-Dulaimi, who was detained in Lebanon in 2014, described Baghdadi in a March interview to Swedish daily Expressen as "a normal family man" and university professor adored by his offspring.
Their seven-year-old daughter, Hagar, said she wanted to go to Europe to study. An Iraqi intelligence report indicates that Baghdadi has a PhD in Islamic studies and was a professor at Tikrit University.
Baghdadi apparently joined the insurgency that erupted after the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq, at one point spending time in an American military prison in the country's south.
Baghdadi's path to jihadist leader differed sharply from that of Osama bin Laden, who had huge wealth to rely on to help build Al-Qaeda, appeared in far more videos and was internationally known long before the September 11 attacks.
"His rise to fame really doesn't compare to other more publicised terror leaders. (Bin Laden) was famous by his name, and he made a show of his piety and low-key demeanour," Skinner said.
"Baghdadi seriously worked behind the scenes and then exploded into publicity when he was announced as the leader, but even then he didn't do publicity stunts," he said.
"He avoids the spotlight, and when he releases a speech, it is about the caliphate and its enemies, not himself."