Horticultural technology has developed slowly over the length of human history. Simple ploughs, spades, and sickles used over 1000 years ago maintain their usefulness today.

It is only the rise of mass scale monoculture cropping in the past 100 years which has transformed garden equipment into the large machines now unrecognisable by our ancestors.

Examples of internationally popular garden tools on a smaller scale are three hand pushed cultivators from circa 1900 in Whangārei Museum (catalogue numbers 1994.86.26, 1982.10.1, and 1991.42.1).

Made of cast iron with wooden handles, these cultivators were all made by American manufacturer Planet Junior. Each had