Uncertainty about the Pfizer vaccine, fear of needles, mistrust of the Government, misinformation and personal freedoms ... these are all touted as reasons not to get vaccinated against Covid-19 by the vaccine hesitant.
Clinical immunologist Dr Maia Brewerton has heard them all – but she's not judging.
She urges other Northlanders to do the same when talking to those who are uncertain about getting the Pfizer vaccine.
Brewerton, who works as a medical specialist at Auckland Hospital and heads the immunology laboratory at North Shore Hospital, said we should help support those who are unsure by listening and supporting them.
Don't make assumptions as to why someone is hesitant – it could be a variety of reasons, she said.
"Give them an opportunity to talk and do more listening than talking.
"If you understand where they're coming from, it allows you to connect with that person and find out how to help them and give them information.
"It's important not to throw facts at people. You don't want to get into an argument where one side has to win. It should be a collective active care to help someone else get vaccinated."
Brewerton, of Ngāti Porou and Ngāti Kahungunu descent, attended a community hui at Okorihi Marae in Kaikohe earlier this month to talk about herd immunity and the importance of getting vaccinated.
She explained how the vaccine creates "roadblocks" for the virus so it can't spread throughout the community.
"The more roadblocks we all put in place the less easy it is to weave around. So herd immunity is simply giving it nowhere to go."
Currently, 78 per cent of eligible Kiwis have had their first dose, and 45 per cent are double-dosed.
However, 22 per cent are still without their first jab.
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has said having 90 per cent of the eligible population vaccinated could end the need for lockdowns and see restrictions eased.
Brewerton said she is always honest when speaking to her patients about vaccinations.
"I openly talk about the limits of the vaccine, but I also talk about the freedoms and opportunities that the vaccine will bring us.
"I share my own reasons for being vaccinated which are to protect my whānau and friends, but also to protect the patients I care for.
"My motivation is primarily to protect the community; I definitely don't want to be responsible for passing on the virus to someone who is vulnerable."
Ultimately, getting vaccinated is about caring for others, Dr Brewerton said.
"We're all in this together. It's one of our tools back to those freedoms that we had in the past."
How to respond
I'm healthy, so if I catch the virus I'll recover. It won't affect me
Brewerton said to remind people getting vaccinated isn't only about them as an individual, "it's about protecting your community".
Everyone knows someone who's vulnerable whether it's a parent or workmate or friend. Our most vulnerable are the older population and people with underlying health conditions. Children are vulnerable and they can't be vaccinated.
You only have to look at Australia to see the young people who've lost their lives or been hospitalised by Delta. I would focus them on the fact they're caring for others by getting the vaccination.
I don't agree with or trust the Government, why should I do what they say?
It's important to understand the push to get vaccinated is not coming from the Government it's coming from scientists and health professionals to protect them from the virus.
You have to acknowledge people have mistrust and that's why they're choosing not to get vaccinated.
Direct them to someone they do trust or a medical professional to explain the science as to why we are recommending it.
The vaccine isn't safe, it hasn't been tested properly
mRNA vaccines - messenger ribonucleuc acid, the technology being used to prevent Covid-19 infection which includes the Pfizer vaccine - have been in clinical trials for decades.
They were looked at for other viruses like Sars, and for diseases including cancer. They're new to people because they haven't heard about them before.
Reassure them it's not new technology, it has been around for decades.
It's gone through the same testing and clinical trial process, but many of the barriers scientists usually face were taken down because it is a global pandemic.
Getting the vaccine isn't mandatory, I'm exercising my freedom of choice
Brewerton said it's important to acknowledge the research people undertake is part of making a decision.
But it's also important for them to know where the information is coming from and trust the experts.
"If I wanted to get my car fixed, I wouldn't take it to an immunologist, I'd take it to a mechanic. If I wanted to get the wiring in my house fixed, again, I'd get an expert to do it, I wouldn't do it myself because it's dangerous if it goes wrong.
''It's about acknowledging that we [medical professionals] are experts in our fields. You want the job done well by someone who knows what they're doing.
''And if it's freedoms we want, then it's clear we're going to have greater freedoms by getting us all vaccinated.''