NIWA scientists are preparing to conduct experiments in Antarctica.
More than a dozen will head there in the next couple of months to research above, on and under the ice.
The first group leaves on October 23 and they will spend a month conducting marine ecology experiments in -1.9 C waters under the ice.
A second group will make the most of daylight hours on the ice and measure the Antarctic ozone hole.
A third and final experiment will be on ocean turbulence beneath the sea ice that surrounds the giant Ross Ice Shelf cavity.