OUR TREASURES

These days, when our houses are hooked up to mains water pipes or filtered fresh water tanks, it is hard to imagine the hard work of Whangārei's 19th century settlers in breaking new ground and transforming wilderness into European modelled households and farms.

Of course, many locations around Whangārei had long been transformed for Māori settlements and cultivations, such as in the Pukenui hills and at Kamo, but a large amount of the land purchased by new settlers was unused and covered in shrub or swamp.

At this time, common European tools for the house and the yard were either

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