Technology such as smartphones has led to spending more time working and increasingly taking work home, a survey has shown.
Nearly two-thirds of the 334 respondents to the Great New Zealand Employment Survey said new technology led to spending more time on the job.
The survey, conducted by Clarian HR and Massey University, found workers, particularly managers, were also more likely to take work outside the office.
But people were divided whether this was a positive or negative effect. Some felt technology allowed more freedom and flexibility, while others felt there was a psychological toll of bringing the office into their homes.
A quarter felt technology was harmful to their personal lives, saying they "can't disconnect from work" and citing reduced family time and criticism from partners.
Professor Jane Parker from the Massey University School of Management said the figure represented "a lot of people feeling disgruntled".
She said it was vital for businesses to provide "some sort of steer" to their employees on how to handle the introduction of smartphones in their working lives. Dr Parker said this year's results were "more optimistic" than the 2012 survey, with 70 per cent of the respondents aged between 21 and 70 believing their firms are performing better than, or as expected in the current economic conditions, and 61 per cent saying they had received a pay increase over the past year.