Last week I had the opportunity for a break from work and a trip to Singapore.
It has a population similar to that of New Zealand but with the land size equivalent to Lake Taupo. With such a densely populated city, gardens and green spaces must be intentional and well planned — they have done exceptionally well. There are some incredible sights of "Green roofs" and "Green walls" of impressive proportions throughout the city. Even the Changi Airport in Singapore has impressive gardens. The famous Gardens by the Bay with its Super Trees opened five years ago at a cost of $1.2 billion. If you are passing through — it is well worth a visit if you like gardens.
Back here in Whanganui we are well into autumn and there is outstanding colour in many deciduous trees. I recommend a drive past Kowhai Park and out to Bason Botanical Gardens to see the lovely colours. If you want trees for autumn colour collect some leaves, snap a picture on your phone, call into the garden centre and the team will be able to identify the tree and help you with your selection.
Autumn is also the best time to plant strawberry plants. This is not to exclude planting throughout the year but by planting during May and June you will get maximum production from their first year of growing — lots of strawberries for Christmas!
Strawberries would have to be the most popular berry fruit grown. They will fit into any size garden and also grow well in pots and containers. They are quick to give results.
There are a number of varieties available, some of the particularly good ones that do well here in Whanganui include Camerosa and a new one to try this year is Albion.
Strawberry varieties are short day varieties and day neutral varieties. The biggest difference is the fruiting peak falls at a different time, so if you plant a mixture you will be harvesting fruit for a longer period.
Short day varieties initiate flowering when, as the name suggests, the days are short in winter and spring. Subsequently the bulk of the fruit of these varieties will start in early November, mostly finishing after Christmas. Some season as the days shorten in autumn flowering is also initiated and small crop may be produced. Camerosa is a short day variety.
Day neutral varieties will fruit any time of the year when the temperatures are warm enough for growth. These varieties tend not to have such a large flush of fruit at once but produce consistently for a longer period. Albion is a high performing recently released day neutral variety that is well suited for Whanganui. It has a more developed and intense flavour than that previously promoted variety Aromas.
The strawberry varieties Camerosa and Albion will be available as bare root bundles during the coming week or so for a very limited time.
If you want to buy a reasonable quantity of plants then you are best to place an order to ensure you don't miss out. Otherwise they will be available later in May in pots and punnets.
While strawberry plantings can be made year round, planting done in the cooler months tend to result in heavier cropping than plantings made in warmer months. If they are planted too late — closer to the longest day (December), they will tend to produce an abundance of runners instead of fruit.
Where to grow
There seems no limit to how and where strawberries can be grown, and they are foolproof enough that anyone can plant them and be rewarded with fruit.
They can be grown in old car tyres where the heat of the tyres hastens ripening. This method keeps the fruit off the ground and subsequently clean from soil. They can be grown in hydroponics, in glazed or terracotta pots, specialist herb/strawberry planters. They are an edible option to grow in a hanging basket or they can fit in the herb garden. Some grow them along the edge of a vegetable garden and others will dedicate a spot to mass produce their favourite berry.
Many grow strawberries in pots and containers of various forms. If you are planting strawberries in pots make sure you use a specialist mix such as Tui Strawberry Mix — as with the success of most plants the quality of the media they grow in plays a significant role in the success you will experience.
The biggest factor to growing good strawberries is site selection. The plants need a sunny position and a well drained soil that has good structure. When planting strawberries, improve the garden the addition of Tui Strawberry Mix or Tui Sheep Pellets. These will work to improve soil structure and add nutrient as well as bulking up the soil can give height that will aid in good drainage.
Mulching and feeding
Mulching the soil surface between plants will prevent weeds, maintain an even soil temperature and prevent moisture loss in summer. A mulch will also help to keep the fruit clean. Suitable mulches include straw, sawdust, pine needles, pine bark or wood shavings.
The traditional and effective method of growing strawberries is to cover the raised mound with black polythene plastic or weed mat making a small slit for each plant. The black mulch attracts heat increasing soil temperature making fruiting earlier and the fruit clean from dirt.
Strawberry plants will produce significantly more fruit if they are watered and fertilised regularly. Like many plants you can buy a specially blended fertiliser such as Tui Strawberry Food which is blended with the appropriate proportions of NPK and trace elements.
While they like to be well drained, plants will need to be watered during the summer months. This is best done in the early morning to reduce the risk of humidity build up.
Strawberry plants will produce good crops for three years after which time the "mother" plants are best thrown out. The plants will generally produce runners each season during late summer. In the first year it is beneficial for the next year's fruit production if these are removed before growing too much as they will drain the plant of energy that will benefit next season's fruit. However in the second and third season saving some runners and replanting will allow you to replenish or enlarge your strawberry patch.
For plants that are starting their second or third season all the dead leaves from the previous season should be pruned off and removed during winter. This helps minimise the hosting of pests and diseases. Plants should then be fertilised in August or early September.
Strawberries are relatively pest-free, just keep an eye out for slugs during spring which may eat the new leaves, and the occurrence of aphids and mites during the summer months, which may require control using bee friendly Yates Mavrik.
Planting strawberry plants, like other fruit trees, is ironically a great way to attract birds into the garden. So to enjoy the fruits of your labour, bird control is essential when growing strawberries and it seems that this is the area where many people come unstuck.
The most effective method is to construct a frame on which bird netting may be draped. The frame needs to be able to hold the bird netting at least 30cm above the plants so when birds sit on the cloth they are not able to reach through the netting and eat those precious berries.
The netting also needs to be secured around the base to prevent side entry from the birds, the use of bricks or similar weighting netting to the ground is effective.
There are a number of different frame options from bending number 8 wire or steel into hoops, to making a "square" frame with garden stakes, to putting an upturned pot on the top of a stake, which keeps the netting held up away from the plants.
How many to plant? A rule of thumb is to plant five plants for each family member. If you want to eat bowlfuls of strawberries every night during summer then plant more!
Have a good week!
Gareth Carter is General Manager of Springvale Garden Centre.