Steve Smith appeared to accuse Murali Vijay of cheating after the India fielder claimed a grounded catch during the Test series decider in Dharamsala.
Footage captured Smith seemingly mouthing "f***ing cheat" after a controversial incident that marred the tense third day of the high-stakes contest.
Vijay snaffled a low slips catch, completing what seemed to be the final wicket to fall in Australia's second innings.
The opener sprinted off the field to pad up, but had to return when third umpire Chris Gaffaney ruled the ball scraped the turf.
At no point did Vijay express any sort of uncertainty to the on-field umpires, who deemed it a 'soft out' before asking Gaffaney to have a look.
Cameras showed Smith, on the balcony of Australia's change room, expressing disbelief about the veteran's conduct.
"I haven't seen that part of it," Australia's batting coach Graeme Hick said of Smith's reaction.
"The ball definitely touched the ground. The process is in place, play resumed.
"Having fielding in slip or close to the bat myself sometimes you're not 100 per cent sure. He would have felt that go into his fingers and felt it was a clean catch.
"Once the batter or whoever it may be is gone to the review then fair enough, maybe the fielders should stand around and wait.
"At times the series has been a little bit heated, but I think this game has been played in very good spirit and he obviously thought he had a clean catch."
India's injured skipper Virat Kohli, who all but accused Australia of systematically cheating by looking to support staff for illegal advice on reviews during the second Test, shook his head after Gaffaney made his decision.
"Everyone was convinced it was a clean catch .. he believed in his mind he's caught it," former Australia paceman Brett Lee said on Star Sports.
Vijay was one of many members of the top-ranked Test side to swap barbs with Matthew Wade on Monday.
It isn't the first time a catch has sparked a row between the sides.
Anil Kumble, now serving as India's coach, was filthy after Michael Clarke claimed a low slips catch during a heated finish to the SCG Test in 2008.
"Only one team was playing with the spirit of the game, that's all I can say," Kumble said at the time.
Ricky Ponting also raged after the match that started the 'monkeygate' saga.
"There's no way I grounded that ball. If you're actually questioning my integrity in the game, then you shouldn't be standing there," Ponting told an Indian journalist, who asked about a catch Australia's skipper claimed.