"I hereby sentence you to death."

The words of Judge Clifford B. Shepard filled the courtroom in Jacksonville, Florida, on October 27, 1976. Shepard was sentencing Clifford Williams Jr., whom a jury had just found guilty of entering a woman's house with a spare key entrusted to him and then shooting her dead from the foot of her bed.

It was a bizarre verdict, for forensics showed that the shots had been fired from outside the house — through the window, breaking the glass and piercing curtains and a screen. Moreover, at the time of the shooting Williams had been

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