Sir Michael Cullen's working group has recommended a swathe of changes to New Zealand's tax system. Here they are in a nutshell:

• Capital gains tax (CGT) to apply after the sale of residential property, businesses, shares, all land and buildings except the family home, and intangibles such as intellectual property and goodwill.
• Tax rate to be set at the income-earner's top tax rate, likely to be 33 per cent for most.
• Calculation of gains to not be retrospective - tax to be applied to gains made after April 2021.
• Art, boats, cars, bikes, jewellery, personal household items and the family home to be exempt.

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• Losses on the sale of assets bought before April 2021 will generally be able to be used to reduce paid on gains from other assets.
• Increase the threshold of the lowest tax rate (10.5 per cent), allowing more income to be taxed at the lower rate.
• Increase social welfare net benefits to allow similar benefits as low-income earners post tax threshold adjustments.
• House on farms and surrounding land up to 4500 sq metres exempt from CGT, calculated as a percentage of total farm value.
• CGT on small businesses can be deferred (roll over relief) if annual turnover is less than $5 million and sale proceeds are reinvested in similar asset class.
• No support to make company tax progressive ie smaller companies paying less than 28 per cent.
• Capital gains tax estimated to raise $8.3 billion over five years.
• Expand coverage and rate of Waste Disposal Levy, expand the ETS and use congestion charging.
• Better tax benefits for KiwiSsavers on low and middle incomes.