Staying at home has created a whole new economy - but what does that means for business? Alanah Eriksen investigates.
What does a 21-year-old reality star with $1.3 billion in the bank do with her money?
Order-in, it seems.
Kylie Jenner spent $14,500 on 186 orders last year with Postmates, an American delivery service that operates a network of couriers who bring you food, drink and groceries.
The company has revealed her colourful order history - everything from Don Julio Añejo 1942 Tequila to a single carrot. It also gave insight into some of her pregnancy cravings - a week before she gave birth to daughter Stormi, Jenner ordered McDonald's Oreo McFlurrys, chicken nuggets, and french fries.
While the beauty mogul is at an extreme end of the scale - and likely has a huge entourage to feed - she is at the centre of the homebody economy, the millenial-friendly market that allows you to buy anything without leaving your lounge (or sometimes, your bed). Be it food, clothes, home goods or movies.
The people who contribute to it are also known as Generation Bore or the generation that downsized its social life.
They are shunning the clubs to stay at home in their sweat pants with Uber Eats and Netflix.
Childhood punishments like going to bed early are now pined-for adult goals.
An analysis last year by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, using 10 years' worth of data from its annual American Time Use Surveys, showed millennials spent 70 per cent more time at home than the general population.
And pubs in Britain are closing at a rate of 18 a week, according to the BBC.
In New Zealand, bar and pub owners say fewer people are coming through their doors - especially rural establishments - partly because alcohol limits for drivers were slashed in December 2014 and the because of the smoking ban a decade earlier.
Bars' inability to compete with off-licences' alcohol pricing has also influenced people to stay home and drink.
British research company Mintel found 11 per cent of adults went to nightclubs at least once a month in the year to September, down from 15 per cent two years earlier.
As for dining out, the highest growth in New Zealand's $11 billion restaurant industry is in the takeaway sector which grew in sales at 6 per cent in 2018, following a 16 per cent growth in 2017.
Even big milestones are being celebrated from the comfort of home.
Rather than celebrate her 21st birthday morning with a brunch at one of Los Angeles' top restaurants, Jenner ordered a cream cheese bagel through Postmates. And she used the app to order several custom birthday cakes, floral arrangements, a motorbike, and a beer bong for her party later at Craig's in West Hollywood.
Even Prince Harry proposed to Meghan Markle at home over roast chicken - a far cry from his wild party-boy ways in his 20s.
On Valentine's Day, Kiwi prepared meal company FED offered a targeted box for two. Lovebirds didn't even have to cut the veges - the meals came ready to heat and eat and featured beef ribs, chocolate mousse and a cheese platter.
For Christmas, My Food Bag offered a special edition box with offerings including an antipasto platter, turkey, ham, sticky date pudding and pavlova.
And former reality stars Art and Matilda Green peddled gift cards for their heat-up meal delivery service before Christmas.
At new year, pizza chain Domino's partnered with food bloggers to offer a code that offered 20 per cent off online orders through to December 31.
"There is literally nothing that sounds more horrific than getting dolled up, putting on heels, and celebrating 2019 with a group of strangers in a crowded nightclub," food blogger Frosted Petticoat said in a sponsored post, next to photos of plastic gold utensils and iceberg lettuce salads.
Bed Bath & Beyond tweeted a blog post targeting those staying in; "Might we recommend an evening in? You won't have to deal with waiting in line anywhere. You can keep it casual, comfortable, and you won't have any less fun." It then recommended a plush bathrobe and a magnetic cheese plate.
And Netflix released a series of 14 New Year's Eve countdown videos featuring characters from popular kids' Netflix shows, saying it conducted an internal survey that found that 77 per cent of parents with young children prefer to stay home on the big night.
It also cited data from the research and marketing firm YPulse, claiming seven in 10 Gen Z and millennials would also rather stay in on New Year's Eve.
Netflix and Kiwi streaming services like Neon and Lightbox are all reporting big uptakes in Kiwi subscribers as is Auckland Libraries with its ebook services.
The modern era of food delivery in New Zealand arguably began in 1996, when Countdown trialled online shopping with 100 Auckland customers.
Today it has thousands of regular online buyers. Competitor Foodstuffs, which operates the New World and Pak n'Save supermarkets, launched its delivery service in 2016.
The first major meal delivery service, My Food Bag, launched in 2013 and co-creator Nadia Lim tells the Herald on Sunday the company has delivered 50 million meals since, covering an area of about 87 per cent of the country.
Last year, the company reportedly surpassed $100 million in annual revenue.
Dozens of meal delivery companies have since launched and, in an effort to appeal to those wanting to slice even more time off cooking, it last month launched its Ready in 20 offering. Co-owner Nadia Lim rode a Lime scooter - the ultimate millennial mode of transport - in a publicity stunt for its new food bag which promises your food will be on the plate and on the table within 20 minutes.
Global food delivery service Uber Eats launched in New Zealand in 2017 and - in what could be the height of laziness - the company launched a walking delivery service last year. So people in Auckland central, surrounded by fast food and cafes, don't have leave their air-conditioned office to collect their food. And apartment-dwellers don't need to walk up and down their stairs.
In the smallest order of the year for Uber Eats last year, someone used the app to purchase a single sachet of ketchup.
One person ordered Uber Eats 438 times and the most expensive order last year was $870 for 151 items of Wendy's from Auckland's Dominion Rd.
In the US, you also don't even need to answer the door to delivery drivers - Amazon sells smart locks so they can let themselves in. Courier UPS has just expanded its similar service, beyond New York and San Francisco, with availability in another 10 cities.
While New Zealand is not quite at that stage, delivery companies appear to be having an effect on Kiwi restaurants.
In 2017, 2232 New Zealand restaurants closed, but another 2700 businesses opened, meaning an overall increase of 534 new establishments, according to the latest Restaurant Association figures.
"Many of our members have diversified by providing takeaway offerings for example to meet the current trend," says chief executive Maria Bidois.
"But there is still a lot of evidence to suggest that Kiwis are still attracted to the experience of dining out and our data very much supports this."
Lim says My Food Bag's Ready in 20 offering was a no-brainer.
"When we surveyed our customers in 2018, the concept of a bag with super-fast meals that can be cooked in 20 mins was appealing to 89 per cent of them.
"People are simply living busier lives so are finding ways to help take the pressure off."
She says the feedback from customers is that children are eating more vegetables and trying new foods, families are eating together and around the table more often, and saving money on grocery shopping.
"People have even said it has even saved their marriage because they are now cooking together and spending more time with each other."
Becky Erwood, one of the founders of FED, says it surveyed customers about its Valentine's Day promotion - 77 per cent said they'd be interested to order more special dining-in menus.
"I think we all need to come to terms with the fact that future generations will live very differently. There's a lot of logic to central kitchens making meals for a hundreds of people, rather than all the energy and time consumption that goes into individual people thinking about, shopping for and cooking an evening meal. From our ghost kitchen we're able to prepare and deliver meals to people all over the North Island without any of the limitations of a physical restaurant."
So if delivery services and apps make our lives easier, are they such a bad thing?
Not necessarily, says Auckland University of Technology professor of nutritionist Elaine Rush.
In fact, Netflix might actually be good for you.
"Apps like Netflix versus public television reduce the interruptions by advertisements and allow better relaxation... they allow discretion and choice of content."
And UberEats and supermarket deliveries are making more time for family and reduce stress, she says. And they are better for the planet.
"It could mean less cars on the road and the hassle of parking.... They may reduce food waste too… but they are the domain of those who have discretionary income."
But like most things, too much of something can be harmful.
Too much screen time can mean exposure to short wavelength (blue) light which reduces production of the hormone melatonin which can help sleep.
"It also may mean when we are looking at a screen we may be neglecting other activities of daily life, eating without attention and not interacting socially which are not good for health," says Rush.
Some research is being done about the use of yellow-tinted glasses to reduce blue light.
"It will only be long term that we may see the outcomes and adverse or beneficial effects of screen time," says Rush.
According to research out of the University of Otago, the stay-at-home drinker has become a problem.
Alcohol-related attendances over a three-week period at Christchurch Hospital emergency department in 2013 only 26 per cent of people had drunk most recently at a pub or club.
That dropped to 20 per cent in 2017.
Among the growing list of delivery companies, alcohol can be brought to your door.
As for our waistlines, according to the Ministry of Health's New Zealand Health Survey, 32 per cent of adults are obese, increasing from 27 per cent in 2006/07 to 32 per cent in 2017/18. The results are higher for some groups when broken down by ethnicity.
So what if we don't want to suffer the possible health problems that come with a sandwich at the click of an app or Marie Kondo on your screen in seconds?
Kiwis need their daily dose of Vitamin D says Rush.
Foods in New Zealand are not fortified with Vitamin D as they are in the Northern Hemisphere. And those with darker skin and more body fat require more.
Although in bigger cities, It isn't always as easy as just going outside.
"If there are green spaces, leaves and quiet this can be very therapeutic," says Rush.
"But if there is pollution - and lime scooters on the footpath - this may be stressful. Direct sunlight for 20 minutes between August and May does increase Vitamin D - the sun is too low in the sky at other times - and natural light does normalise circadian rhythms and hormones."
The amount of physical activity depends on age, gender, ability.
"I prefer to talk about physical activity – a lot of jobs include physical activity – exercise is more a choice. Best to be moving more often to aid circulation – not sitting too long as that makes more work for the heart- moving muscles moves blood too. Ten thousand steps is a useful goal for some but also good to have regularly breaks and movement."
The ultimate consumer
Aucklander Leo Reple could be the ultimate consumer of the homebody economy.
He estimates he orders Uber Eats four or five times a week. He watches Netflix shows for about two hours every day before bed, or if he's hungover, he'll watch for most of the day while recovering.
As a single and busy 32-year-old owner of a plaster and labour business, it cuts down time in the kitchen and saves him having to cook for one.
While he thinks Netflix can make consumers lazy, Uber Eats gives him time for other hobbies, and time to walk his dog Max.
"It's convenient, I can order, jump in the shower and by the time I'm out food is five minutes away. It saves me time in the kitchen which I don't enjoy."
Reple has also cut down on going to pubs ands clubs recently.
"I do try to have a quiet weekend here and there and it definitely helps. I'm getting old, not partying every week anymore, I've been enjoying days out more than nights lately.
But he makes sure never to choose UberEats to celebrate important dates which he sees as good times to socialise.