Superstorm Sandy will end up causing about $20 billion in property damages and $US10 billion to $30 billion more in lost business, according to IHS Global Insight, a forecasting firm.
In the long run, the devastation the storm inflicted on New York City and other parts of the Northeast will barely nick the US economy. That's the view of economists who say higher gas prices and a slightly slower economy in coming weeks will likely be matched by reconstruction and repairs that will contribute to growth over time.
The short-term blow to the economy, though, could subtract about 0.6 percentage points from US economic growth in the October-December quarter, IHS says. Retailers, airlines and home construction firms will likely lose some business.
The storm cut power to about 7 million homes, shut down 70 per cent of East Coast oil refineries and inflicted worse-than-expected damage in the New York metro area. That area produces about 10 per cent of US economic output.
New York City was all but closed off by car, train and air. The superstorm overflowed the city's waterfront, flooded the financial district and subway tunnels and cut power to hundreds of thousands. Power is expected to be fully restored in Manhattan and Brooklyn within four days.
Most homeowners who suffered losses from flooding won't be able to benefit from their insurance policies. Standard homeowner policies don't cover flood damage, and few homeowners have flood insurance.
Across US industries, disruptions will slow the economy temporarily. Some restaurants and stores will draw fewer customers. Factories may shut down or hold shorter shifts because of a short-term drop in customer demand.
Some of those losses won't be so easily made up. Restaurants that lose two or three days of business, for example, won't necessarily experience a rebound later. And money spent to repair a home may lead to less spending elsewhere.
With some roads in the Northeast impassable after the storm, drivers won't be filling up as much. That will slow demand for petrol. Pump prices, which had been declining before the storm, will likely keep slipping. The national average for a gallon of regular fell by about a penny on Tuesday, to $US3.53 more than 11 cents lower than a week ago.
Shipping and business travel has been suspended in areas of the Northeast. More than 15,000 flights across the Northeast and the world have been grounded, and it will take days for some passengers to get where they're going.
On Tuesday, more than 6,000 flights were cancelled, according to the flight-tracking service FlightAware. More than 500 flights scheduled for Wednesday were also cancelled.
The three big New York airports were closed on Tuesday by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. New York has the nation's busiest airspace, so cancellations there drastically affect travel in other cities.
Economists noted that the hit to the economy in the short run was worsened by the size of the population centres the storm hit.
"Sandy hit a high-population-density area with a lot of expensive homes," said Beata Caranci, deputy chief economist at TD Bank.
Hurricane damage to homes, businesses and roads reduces US wealth. But it doesn't subtract from the government's calculation of economic activity.
By contrast, rebuilding and restocking by businesses and consumers add to the nation's gross domestic product the broadest gauge of economic production. GDP measures all goods and services produced in the United States.
Paul Ashworth, chief US economist at Capital Economics, expects the storm to shave 0.1 to 0.2 percentage point from annual economic growth in the October-December quarter. He's forecasting that the economy will grow at an annual rate of 1.5 per cent to 2 per cent in the fourth quarter.
Ashworth says any losses this quarter should be made up later as rebuilding boosts sales at building supply stores and other companies.
"People will load up on whatever they need to make repairs roofing, dry wall, carpeting to deal with the damage," he says.
In the short run, Caranci said the economic damage could be heaviest for small businesses that lack the money and other resources to withstand lost sales.
"It will remain to be seen how long disruptions to electricity and infrastructure persist," she said.
But she noted that the storm should give a boost to the construction industry, which shed millions of workers after the housing bust. Many who lost construction jobs were skilled employees with disproportionately high pay, and the loss of those jobs hit the economy hard.
Economists expect that the actual damages from Hurricane Sandy will exceed those caused last year by Hurricane Irene, which cost $US15.8 billion. Irene had little effect on the nation's growth.
Sandy will likely be among the 10 costliest hurricanes in US history. It would still be far below the worst Hurricane Katrina, which cost $US108 billion and caused 1,200 deaths in 2005.
But "there is every reason to believe that the hurricane won't kick the legs out of an already-fragile US economy," Caranci said.