Cancer breakthrough could mean new drugs

Scientists may have made a cancer breakthrough. Photo / Thinkstock
Scientists may have made a cancer breakthrough. Photo / Thinkstock

Scientists say they have found mutations in 26 genes that may cause oesophageal cancer, a breakthrough they hope will lead to new drugs for the deadly and increasingly frequent disease.

A team of experts in the United States unravelled the genetic code of tumour cells from 149 patients, which they compared to healthy cells to identify a mutation signature for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).

This type of cancer of the oesophagus or gullet, the muscular tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach, has a five-year survival rate of only about 15-20 per cent.

EAC often originates from a disease called Barrett's oesophagus, which in turn is caused by chronic acid reflux.

Incidence of the cancer has increased by 600 per cent over the past 30 years - particularly in Western countries, according to the study.

Oesophageal cancer kills about 400,000 around the world each year.

Now, the biggest genetic analysis yet of this type of cancer has revealed common mutations that may be specifically targeted by new drugs.

"Finding the mutations helps us understand what makes the cancer tick,'' study co-author Adam Bass of the Harvard Medical School told AFP.

"It can also help us find new therapies.''

Cancer develops when a human cell's DNA is mutated so that its normal function is disrupted and it starts growing and spreading out of control.

There are different causes, including obesity, smoking, exposure to the sun's UV rays or environmental pollution.

Mutations of different genes have been implicated in different cancers, but there are also vast differences even among people with the same form of the disease.

"We looked at which genes were mutated more frequently than would be expected by chance,'' said Bass.

"Doing so, we found 26 genes that may be contributing to this cancer type.''

- AFP

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