Women earn between $8000 and $20,000 less than their male colleagues in some New Zealand industries - despite being more qualified.
Progress towards gender pay parity in New Zealand is "glacial", an advocacy group for women in business says, and urgent work is needed to dislodge an entrenched "old boys' network" culture.
A survey by recruitment company font talent found overall women earned between $8000 and $20,000 less than men in creative, digital and marketing roles. This was despite women being more likely to hold a degree or a higher qualification than their male counterparts.
The international survey, which included 849 New Zealand respondents, compared wages, benefits and retention rates across gender, job function and country.
New Zealand font talent manager Julie Prentice said the salary gaps could be because men were more likely than women to stay in the industry or similar roles for six or more years. This was when promotions with higher salaries tended to be offered, she said.
Faye Langdon, managing director of Global Women, an advocacy group for women in business, said "pay parity has been a big issue for a long time".
"It is moving at a glacial pace. And it is all around culture and around actually having transparency ...
"It is an entrenched old boys' network," she said.
Only about 5 per cent of CEO roles in New Zealand are held by women.